When he came back to Paris, he was given the rank of colonel by the Central Committee of the National Guard, and the command of Fort Issy on 13 April. On 10 June, when the Commune was finished, Flaubert wrote to Sand:[105]. None of the other Communes lasted more than a few days, and most ended with little or no bloodshed. On 6 October, Defense Minister Léon Gambetta departed the city by balloon to try to organise national resistance against the Germans. Once the fighting began inside Paris, the strong neighborhood loyalties that had been an advantage of the Commune became something of a disadvantage: instead of an overall planned defence, each "quartier" fought desperately for its survival, and each was overcome in turn. By 20 September 1870, the German army had surrounded Paris and was camped just 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) from the French front lines. [89], On 28 May, the regular army captured the last remaining positions of the Commune, which offered little resistance. The Committee officially lifted the state of siege, named commissions to administer the government, and called elections for 23 March. The Committee of Public Safety issued its own decree: TO ARMS! Émile Zola wrote, "Thus we citizens of Paris are placed between two terrible laws; the law of suspects brought back by the Commune and the law on rapid executions which will certainly be approved by the Assembly. [88] According to Prosper-Olivier Lissagaray, a defender of the Commune, a total of 63 people were executed by the Commune during the bloody week. They’ve been searching for firemen as far away as Brussels." Barricades had not been prepared in advance; some nine hundred barricades were built hurriedly out of paving stones and sacks of earth. National guardsmen in the crowd opened fire along with the firing squad. He reported to the Government that there was no alternative to negotiating an armistice. That was conflict between the Soviet Union and Communist China. At least three plays have been set in the Commune: Berlin performance group Showcase Beat le Mot created, There have been numerous films set in the Commune. He died in Paris in 1896; an obelisk in his honor was erected in Père Lachaise. [59], Despite this first failure, Commune leaders were still convinced that, as at Montmartre, French army soldiers would refuse to fire on national guardsmen. The Commune was the result of an uprising within Paris after the Franco-Prussian War ended with French defeat. [9], The Commune resulted in part from growing discontent among the Paris workers. Delescluze moved his headquarters from the Hotel de Ville to the city hall of the 11th arrondissement. In Paris, members of the Military Commission and the Executive Committee of the Commune, as well as the Central Committee of the National Guard, met on 1 April. [23], The national government in Bordeaux called for national elections at the end of January, held just ten days later on 8 February. The plan was initially opposed by War Minister Adolphe Le Flô, D'Aurelle de Paladines, and Vinoy, who argued that the move was premature, because the army had too few soldiers, was undisciplined and demoralized, and that many units had become politicized and were unreliable. Marx wrote that, "Working men's Paris, with its Commune, will be forever celebrated as the glorious harbinger of a new society. Their remains were later reburied in city cemeteries. This was defeated by a strike organised by the International. Ahead of the elections, the Central Committee and the leaders of the International gave out their lists of candidates, mostly belonging to the extreme left. This was aimed particularly at Pierre Tirard, the republican mayor of the 2nd arrondissement, who had been elected to both Commune and National Assembly. The Paris Commune was a political experiment that lasted for 72 days from March 18 to May 28, 1871. On 22 March 1871, demonstrators holding banners declaring them to be "Friends of Peace" were blocked from entering the Place Vendôme by guardsmen who, after being fired on, opened fire on the crowd. One of the best-known candidates, Georges Clemenceau, received only 752 votes. After a meeting with Theodor Herzl, he also became interested in the fledgling Zionist movement. If the seizure of the cannon was not successful, the government would withdraw from the centre of Paris, build up its forces, and then attack with overwhelming force, as they had done during the uprising of June 1848. The fires of Paris have pushed over the limit the exasperation of the army. In the middle of the afternoon Lecomte and the other officers were taken to 6 Rue des Rosiers by members of a group calling themselves The Committee of Vigilance of the 18th arrondissement, who demanded that they be tried and executed.[28]. It was savagely repressed and there was to be no similar revolution in France until 1968. [128] Stalin wrote: "In 1917 we thought that we would form a commune, an association of workers, and that we would put an end to bureaucracy...That is a goal that we are still far from reaching. The Paris Commune of 1871 was one of the greatest and most inspiring episodes in the history of the working class. He went into exile in Switzerland and died before making a single payment. The working women denounced the way the churches controlled wealth, mistreated workers, controlled girls’ schools, and invaded family privacy. The soldiers captured 42 guardsmen and several women, took them to the same house on Rue Rosier where generals Clement-Thomas and Lecomte had been executed, and shot them. [64], Since every able-bodied man in Paris was obliged to be a member of the National Guard, the Commune on paper had an army of about 200,000 men on 6 May; the actual number was much lower, probably between 25,000 and 50,000 men. The National Guard disintegrated, with many soldiers changing into civilian clothes and fleeing the city, leaving between 10,000 and 15,000 Communards to defend the barricades. Little resistance was encountered in the west of Paris, but the army moved forward slowly and cautiously, in no hurry. The working class of Paris were feeling ostracized after the decadence of the Second Empire and the Franco-Prussian War.The Prussians besieged Paris in September 1870, causing suffering among Parisians. Fires set at the Louvre, Palais-Royal and Notre-Dame were extinguished without causing significant damage. Archbishop Darboy and five other hostages were promptly taken out into the courtyard of the prison, lined up against the wall, and shot. Proposed by Henri Rochefort, editor of the Le Mot d'Ordre, on 6 April, it had not been voted upon by the Commune until 10 May. The split between the Marxists and anarchists at the 1872 Hague Congress of the First International (IWA) may in part be traced to Marx's stance that the Commune might have saved itself had it dealt more harshly with reactionaries, instituted conscription, and centralised decision-making in the hands of a revolutionary direction. "[103] Soon after the Commune began, Gustave Flaubert wrote to Sand, "Austria did not go into Revolution after Sadowa, nor Italy after Novara, nor Russia after Sebastopol! There were rumours that pétroleuses were paid 10 francs per house. The Commune began by establishing nine commissions, similar to those of the National Assembly, to manage the affairs of Paris. France - France - The Commune of Paris: A few days later, the assembly transferred the seat of government from Bordeaux to Versailles. However, Thiers and the National Assembly did not accept his proposals. Gould, Roger V. "Multiple networks and mobilization in the Paris Commune, 1871. She offered to shoot Thiers, and suggested the destruction of Paris by way of vengeance for its surrender. The Tuileries Palace, which had been the residence of most of the monarchs of France from Henry IV to Napoleon III, was defended by a garrison of some three hundred National Guard with thirty cannon placed in the garden. [4] Jacques Rougerie, who had earlier accepted the 20,000 figure, wrote in 2014, "the number ten thousand victims seems today the most plausible; it remains an enormous number for the time. ", Deposition de M. le maréchal Mac-Mahon (28 August 1871) in Enquéte Parlementaire sur l'insurrection du 18 mars 1871 (Paris: Librarie Législative, 1872), p. 183, Pivot, Sylvain, "La Commune, les Communards, les ecrivains ou la haine et la gloire." Other candidates who were elected, including about twenty moderate republicans and five radicals, refused to take their seats. The reserves were guarded by 500 national guardsmen who were themselves Bank of France employees. He was particularly hated by the national guardsmen of Montmartre and Belleville because of the severe discipline he imposed during the siege of Paris. A general amnesty was granted on 11 July 1880, allowing the remaining 543 condemned prisoners, and 262 sentenced in their absence, to return to France. They had been engaged in a day-long artillery duel with the regular army. [126] ", Theodore Zeldin in France 1848-1945, vol.I goes so far as to say that Thiers deliberately ordered Paris to be evacuated in order to incite part of the population to rise up and eventually have a pretext for crushing Paris as a rebellious force.[127]. Later in 1867, a public demonstration in Paris was answered by the dissolution of its executive committee and the leadership being fined. Perhaps he meant both dead and wounded." [48][49] There were reports in various newspapers of pétroleuses but evidence remains weak. As for the reforms initiated by the Commune, such as the re-opening of workplaces as co-operatives, anarchists could see their ideas of associated labour beginning to be realised...Moreover, the Commune's ideas on federation obviously reflected the influence of Proudhon on French radical ideas. December 2003. It seems to Paris that they're shooting everyone. Particularly notable is. This group included the young doctor and future prime minister Georges Clemenceau, who was a member of the National Assembly and Mayor of the 18th arrondissement. A hotbed of working-class radicalism, Paris was primarily defended during this time by the radical troops of the National Guard rather than regular Army troops. The Council accepted his decision, and Vinoy gave orders for the operation to begin the next day.[27]. Five women were also put on trial for participation in the Commune, including the "Red Virgin" Louise Michel. The National Guard still held parts of the 3rd arrondissment, from the Carreau du Temple to the Arts-et-Metiers, and the National Guard still had artillery at their strong points at the Buttes-Chaumont and Père-Lachaise, from which they continued to bombard the regular army forces along the Canal Saint-Martin. [17], On 28 October, the news arrived in Paris that the 160,000 soldiers of the French army at Metz, which had been surrounded by the Germans since August, had surrendered. It also reached a consensus on certain policies that tended towards a progressive, secular, and highly democratic social democracy. The Archbishop and a number of priests were executed during Bloody Week, in retaliation for the execution of Commune soldiers by the regular army. Because of his republican beliefs, he had been arrested by Napoleon III and exiled, and had only returned to France after the downfall of the Empire. On the Rue Royale, soldiers seized the formidable barricade around the Madeleine church; 300 prisoners captured with their weapons were shot there, the largest of the mass executions of the rebels.[71]. Four battalions crossed the Seine and captured the prefecture of police, while other units occupied the former headquarters of the National Guard at the Place Vendôme, as well as the Ministry of Justice. [93] A partial amnesty was granted on 3 March 1879, allowing 400 of the 600 deportees sent to New Caledonia to return, and 2,000 of the 2,400 prisoners sentenced in their absence. Bitter fighting followed, as MacMahon's army worked their way systematically forward to the walls of Paris. Go and Fight! All I can say is that the insurgents lost a lot more people than we did." The sight of the ruins is nothing compared to the great Parisian insanity. In 1871, the working class of Paris, incensed by their lack of political power and tired of being exploited, seized control of the capital. Wounded men were being tended in the halls, and some of the National Guard officers and Commune members were changing from their uniforms into civilian clothes and shaving their beards, preparing to escape from the city. They also sent a delegation of mayors of the Paris arrondissements, led by Clemenceau, to negotiate with Thiers in Versailles to obtain a special independent status for Paris. [108], Émile Zola, as a journalist for Le Sémaphore de Marseille, reported on the fall of the Commune, and was one of the first reporters to enter the city during Bloody Week. Dombrowski held this position until 23 May, when he was killed while defending the city barricades.[66]. Delescluze offered Wroblewski the command of the Commune forces, which he declined, saying that he preferred to fight as a private soldier. In December temperatures dropped to −15 °C (5 °F), and the Seine froze for three weeks. Soon after the Paris Commune took power in Paris, revolutionary and socialist groups in several other French cities tried to establish their own communes. Under the decree, any person accused of complicity with the Versailles government could be immediately arrested, imprisoned and tried by a special jury of accusation. Jourde's prudence was later condemned by Karl Marx and other Marxists, who felt the Commune should have confiscated the bank's reserves and spent all the money immediately.[53]. Revolutionary city council of Paris in 1871, This article is about the government of Paris in 1871. [60], Commune leaders responded to the execution of prisoners by the Army by passing a new order on 5 April—the Decree on Hostages. Ninety-five were sentenced to death; 251 to forced labour; 1,169 to deportation, usually to New Caledonia; 3,147 to simple deportation; 1,257 to solitary confinement; 1,305 to prison for more than a year; and 2,054 to prison for less than a year.[91]. At about 5:30 on 18 March, the angry crowd of national guardsmen and deserters from Lecomte's regiment at Rue des Rosiers seized Clément-Thomas, beat him with rifle butts, pushed him into the garden, and shot him repeatedly. This war eventually ended as France surrendered to the Prussians and signed a ceasefire agreement. [54], A republican press also flourished, including such papers as Le Mot d'Ordre of Henri Rochefort, which was both violently anti-Versailles and critical of the faults and excesses of the Commune. 20 members are Freemasons. The most popular of the pro-Commune newspapers was Le Cri du Peuple, published by Jules Valles, which was published from 22 February until 23 May. This video brought to you by Skillshare! The prisoners gave their identity, sentence was pronounced by a court of two or three gendarme officers, the prisoners were taken out and sentences immediately carried out. 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